Religion and Devotion
LTK 218 (Holland, Netherlands, 1450-1500): Liedboek (Book of songs), paper, 78 fols., 190 x c.140mm, 1 col., various lines.

This manuscript consists of three independent material units, which were produced at different times and places and then later bound together. During the binding process the leaves were cut to the same size, which led to some loss of the text in the third part. Upon close inspection you can see that someone added the missing letters some time later (see fol. 66v as an example).

The first part of this manuscript (fols. 1r - 53v) contains a psalter and various prayers. This part once belonged to a Dominican monastery in Zwolle (the Netherlands). The second part consists of two sermons for the feast day of St. Barbara. The third part, however, is perhaps the most interesting part of this manuscript. It contains a hymnal owned and written by Marigen Remen, who was from either Leiden or Amsterdam (see fol. 65v). Even though her script is rough and her grammar poor the text is easy to read.

The red dots on each page are added as decoration to fill up the interlinear spacing and are not to be mistaken for musical notes. Most books of songs produced in the second half of the sixteenth century were no longer witten by hand but printed.

(Lieftinck, 1948, pp. 26-30) (Stooker & Verbeij, 1997, pp. nr. 96,742,1345) (Gerritsen, 1966)


  1. This manuscript consists of several parts that where bound together on a later date. How do the parts differ from each other? Look for example at the material that was used, the type of script, the decorations and the addition of reading aids.
  2. Observe all written parts of the book in front of you (main text, rubrics, marginal additions, ownership inscriptions) and make an inventory of the different styles of handwriting. Some differences you observe may result from the fact that they are different script families, while others are a variation within one given script family. Focus on a small selection of letters of your own choice and deduce if they vary and how precisely. This is a difficult task that may require you to analyze individual letters, but that may also be sparked by an intuitive verdict: one style of writing may feel “much better” or “of higher quality” than another. Differentiate between the different writing styles to the best of your abilities and with any available means – quantitative or qualitative.


  1. Lieftinck, G. I. (1948). Codices Manuscripti V: codicum in finibus belgarum ante annum 1550 conscriptorum qui in bibliotheca universitatis asservantur (Vol. 1). Brill.
  2. Stooker, K., & Verbeij, T. (1997). Collecties op orde : Middelnederlandse handschriften uit kloosters en semi-religieuze gemeenschappen in de Nederlanden (Vol. 2). Peeters.
  3. Gerritsen, W. P. (1966). Het liedboekje van Marigen Remen : (Hs. Leiden, U.B., Ltk. 218, F.62-F.78V.). Ruygh-Bewerp.